Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (55 minutes, 25 points, 1 for each)
1.0 The Introduction
Directions: There are five passages in this part. Each passage is followed by five questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET
1.1 Jiangsu Art Museum
纽约讯 克里斯蒂通俗文化拍卖将于6月25日在纽约进行，包括各种各样的美国大众文化――从20世纪30年代的连环漫画到当前风靡的乙烯基设计玩具。本次拍卖将提供近330件好莱坞、摇滚、动漫等大事记的纪念物品以及设计家所设计的玩具。也有来自詹姆斯甘多费尼作为电影《黑道家族》角色的装束。 玩具类：首次出现在拍卖行，来自Kidrobot，世界上数一数二的艺术创作作品及零售商限量玩具和服装。这些玩具反映了当前都市流行风尚，而设计者们也是由一些当代艺术家组成。在2006～2007年，有13件作品被当代美术馆作为永久收藏。一些玩具还成为了Cooper-Hewitt史密斯设计博物馆的中心装饰品。Kidrobot提供的玩具中有一款由艺术家Huck Gee, Gary Baseman, Deph, Doze Green行Sket设计的材质是聚乙烯DUNNY，基础的DUNNY毫无特质，只有一个原始的造型，就像一块画布，图案和色彩完全由设计师发挥。并且，在尊重原型的基础上，设计师还可以增加饰物或者稍微改变局部造型。估价每一个在400～5,000美元。 设计师Joe Ledbetter的作品包括一个乙烯基黄色兔先生，并带有原装包装盒和一幅画。
Jiangsu Art Museum (JAM)is a provincial museum in Nanjing, Jiangsu province. The predecessor of JAM isNational Art exhibition hall, founded in 1936, which was first national museumduring the period of the Republic of China (ROC, 1912-1949). JAM has two parts,old museum (figure 1) and new museum (figure 2). The old museum is called‘National Art exhibition hall’, covers an area of 4700 square meters. The styleof the museum is western with traditional Chinese elements. The new museum wasbuilt in 2009 in the 10600 square meters area, designed by KSP (Engel undZimmermann Architekten). The number of permanent staffs is 85 in 2010.JAM undertakes and holds 60-80 exhibitions annually.
NEW YORK.- Christie’s Pop Culture auction on June 25 in New York will include a range of collectibles celebrating the diverse nature of American popular culture — from 1930s comic strips to the current craze for vinyl designer toys. The sale will offer approximately 330 lots of Hollywood memorabilia, Rock and Roll memorabilia, animation and comic art, space memorabilia, and a collection of designer toys. Also featured is a collection of costumes from James Gandolfini’s role as Tony Soprano in The Soprano’s, which will benefit Wounded Warrior Project. Appearing for the first time at auction will be a section of limited edition original art toys from Kidrobot, the premier creator and retailer of art toys and apparel. These toys are reflective of a growing artistic movement which merges urban street trends, fashion, and pop art to produce limited edition, collectible toys. These designer toys made by contemporary artists have become further recognized as innovative art objects when 13 pieces were accepted into the permanent collection at The Museum of Modern Art’s in 2007, and in 2006 the toys were also the centerpiece of the Cooper-Hewitt Smithsonian Museum Design Triennial. Among the Kidrobot toys offered in the auction are various models of the Dunny, a vinyl rabbit-like figure which artists use as a blank canvas to create their quirky designs that often mix pop culture ideas of fashion, cartoons, graffiti, comics, music, and fine art. Dunnies by artists Huck Gee, Gary Baseman, Deph, Doze Green and Sket One are featured, with estimates ranging from $400-5,000. Joe Ledbetter works include a vinyl yellow Mr. Bunny, accompanied by its original box (estimate: $1,000-2,000) and a painting The Defender (estimate: $3,000-5,000). The whimsical creations of Natalia Gianinazzi include a giant plush soft toy, a Grusli, accompanied by his mouse (estimate: $1,500-2,000).
The longest bull run in a century of art-market history ended on a dramatic note with a sale of 56 works by Damien Hirst, “Beautiful Inside My Head Forever”，at Sotheby’s in London on September 15th 2008. All but two pieces sold, fetching more than ￡70m, a record for a sale by a single artist. It was a last victory. As the auctioneer called out bids, in New York one of the oldest banks on Wall Street, Lehman Brothers, filed for bankruptcy.
1.2 Art Museum of Nanjing University of the Art
The world art market had already been losing momentum for a while after rising bewilderingly since 2003. At its peak in 2007 it was worth some $65 billion, reckons Clare McAndrew, founder of Arts Economics, a research firm—double the figure five years earlier. Since then it may have come down to $50 billion. But the market generates interest far beyond its size because it brings together great wealth, enormous egos, greed, passion and controversy in a way matched by few other industries.
Art Museum of Nanjing University of the Art (AMNUA) is a college art museum in Nanjing, built and put into use in 2012.The museum covers an area of 15,000 square meters.AMNUA almost has not its collections. The number of permanent staffs is 10 in 2014. Most of the staffs were born in 1980s. AMNUA undertook and held 30 exhibitions in 2014.
In the weeks and months that followed Mr Hirst’s sale, spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable, especially in New York, where the bail-out of the banks coincided with the loss of thousands of jobs and the financial demise of many art-buying investors. In the art world that meant collectors stayed away from galleries and salerooms. Sales of contemporary art fell by two-thirds, and in the most overheated sector—for Chinese contemporary art—they were down by nearly 90% in the year to November 2008. Within weeks the world’s two biggest auction houses, Sotheby’s and Christie’s, had to pay out nearly $200m in guarantees to clients who had placed works for sale with them.
The current downturn in the art market is the worst since the Japanese stopped buying Impressionists at the end of 1989, a move that started the most serious contraction in the market since the Second World War. This time experts reckon that prices are about 40% down on their peak on average, though some have been far more fluctuant. But Edward Dolman, Christie’s chief executive, says: “I’m pretty confident we’re at the bottom.”
2.1 The type of organizationsand ownership
What makes this slump different from the last, he says, is that there are still buyers in the market, whereas in the early 1990s, when interest rates were high, there was no demand even though many collectors wanted to sell. Christie’s revenues in the first half of 2009 were still higher than in the first half of 2006. Almost everyone who was interviewed for this special report said that the biggest problem at the moment is not a lack of demand but a lack of good work to sell. The three Ds—death, debt and divorce—still deliver works of art to the market. But anyone who does not have to sell is keeping away, waiting for confidence to return.
JAM and AMNUA are‘public institutions’. According toProvisional
31.In the first paragraph, Damien Hirst's sale was referred to as “a last victory” because ____.
Regulations on the registration and administration of public institutions(2004),‘public institutions’ is held by state organs or governments and focuses on publicbenefits but it is not state organ. The state-owned museums, hospitals,colleges are all public institutions.Public institution has similar objectives in comparison with NPO or NGO.They are opened to the public for free from Tuesday to Sunday and closed onMonday. The general operational mode of the state-owned museums is plannedeconomic system.
A. the art market had witnessed a succession of victories
2.2 The financialstatement
B. the auctioneer finally got the two pieces at the highest bids
In terms of thedefinition of public institution, it doesn’t have responsibility to publish itfinancial statement on annually or quarterly on its website. It is managed bystate organs, so it has responsibility to report its financial situation togovernment departments. In this case, there is no any financial information ontheir websites.
C. Beautiful Inside My Head Forever won over all masterpieces
2.3 The location and accessibility
D. it was successfully made just before the world financial crisis
JAM is located at Yangtze River Road, near the Presidential palace and the Great Hall of thePeople of ROC (the historic buildings). Viewers could access JAM by publictransportations, such as bus and subway. The price of a bus or subway ticket is2 RMB (0.4 AUD). AMNUA is located in Huju North Road, near the Jiangsu provincial government.
32.By saying “spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable”(Line 1-2,Para.3)，the author suggests that_____.
2.4 The background of permanent staffs